PROFFESSIONAL- WORKING IDENTITIES OF FEMALE POOR RELIEF RECIPIENTS

  • Cec, D.
Abstract:
Many young people, especially young women, migrated to towns in search of work as the possibilities of agricultural employment declined or were constantly insufficient. Most households of urban population on lower strata of society necessarily drew income from a number of sources, with many women adding to wage earning even if their employment was usually more intermittent and low-paid than that of adult males. Although the male breadwinner wage was increasingly regarded as the ideal and even the norm, in practice many households were dependent upon female earnings, especially those households run by widows and due to fact that compulsory school was introduced in 18th century which limits the juvenile work to certain extent. One of the greatest problems facing the history of women's work is the absence of reliable source and information. Census are the most obvious source, especially for the period after 1856 when occupations were included; but in practice such information is vastly more accurate for men than for women for several reasons. Since women's work was often part-time, casual and not regarded as important enough to declare the commissioners. Additional women’s work was sometimes regarded as illegal and immoral. Due to lack of other sources (Business records, wage books) we will use a source, which include predominantly lower strata of urban population. Based on qualitative and quantitative analysis of registers of poor-relief benefactors the paper will draw the varieties of women’s work regarding to age, personal and professional status. Women's work was important to most families as well as for single women, it varied across time and space as well as life cycle of practitioner and was persistent associated with certain sectors.
SGEM Research areas:
Year:
2016
Type of Publication:
In Proceedings
Keywords:
women’s work; economy of makeshifts; 1800-1850; poor-relief; working identities
Volume:
16
SGEM Book title:
3rd International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conference on Social Sciences and Arts SGEM2016, Vienna Extended Session
Book number:
3.1
SGEM Series:
International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conference on Social Sciences and Arts-SGEM
Pages:
187-194
Publisher address:
51 Al. Malinov blvd, Sofia, 1712, Bulgaria
SGEM supporters:
SWS Scholarly Society; Acad Sci Czech Republ; Latvian Acad Sci; Polish Acad Sci; Russian Acad Sci; Serbian Acad Sci & Arts; Natl Acad Sci Ukraine; Natl Acad Sci Armenia; Sci Council Japan; European Acad Sci, Arts & Letters; Acad Fine Arts Zagreb Croatia; C
Period:
06-09 April, 2016
ISBN:
978-619-7105-52-0
ISSN:
2367-5659
Conference:
3rd International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conference on Social Sciences and Arts SGEM2016, Vienna Extended Session, 06-09 April, 2016
DOI:
10.5593/SGEMSOCIAL2016/HB31/S02.024
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