FOLK HIGH SCHOOLS IN HUNGARY IN THE FIRST HALF OF 20TH CENTURY

  • Szoro, I.
Abstract:
In the 19th century, for the sake of improving agricultural production and enhancing the living standard of agrarian population, it became more and more important to increase the educational level of peasantry and the introduction of various forms of adult education. In many cases, the folk high schools provided training necessary to achieve more efficiency in farming and to represent citizens’ interests more clearly for people who had already finished elementary school. The folk high school movement started out in Denmark and had huge impact on other countries, too, but training was implemented differently everywhere. In Hungary, there were trials for introducing folk high school type of trainings already at the beginning of 19th century. However, folk high schools were established and continuously operated in larger scale only in 20th century. The Hungarian folk high schools utilised the methodologies of Danish and German education, too, and mixed them with the characteristics of the Hungarian adult education. On the one hand, education programs were organised by the appropriate towns/cities. On the other hand, churches played a considerable role in establishing folk high schools. Eventually, several secondary schools with long history held folk high school type courses, too. Folk high schools aimed at strengthening national identity and peasant self-awareness, emphasising moral values, and developing community organising capabilities. They paid special attention to general and economic education, improving public orientation, as well as preparing for citizenship roles. There were 1–3 month shorter and 3–6 month longer courses with evening classes and internship. At the beginning of 1944, despite war conditions, there were 195 folk high school courses being held in the country. The government only provided low subsidy to the operation of these institutions. However, populist writers having high social prestige supported their work with their countenance, funds, and their collaboration as lecturers. Thanks to folk high schools established in large scale at agrarian territories, people who otherwise would not study further could also take part in adult education. As a result of this education, a more open minded, informed, self-confident village leader layer was formulated. They had an essential role in organising local communities, improving farming, and raising the standard of living. But the dictatorship developing in the 1950-ies winded up the folk high schools together with other autonomous institutions.
SGEM Research areas:
Year:
2016
Type of Publication:
In Proceedings
Keywords:
folk high school; adult education; peasantry; civil society 381
Volume:
16
SGEM Book title:
3rd International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conference on Social Sciences and Arts SGEM 2016
Book number:
3.2
SGEM Series:
International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conference on Social Sciences and Arts-SGEM
Pages:
381-388
Publisher address:
51 Al. Malinov blvd, Sofia, 1712, Bulgaria
SGEM supporters:
SWS Scholarly Society; Acad Sci Czech Republ; Latvian Acad Sci; Polish Acad Sci; Russian Acad Sci; Serbian Acad Sci & Arts; Natl Acad Sci Ukraine; Natl Acad Sci Armenia; Sci Council Japan; European Acad Sci, Arts & Letters; Acad Fine Arts Zagreb Croatia; C
Period:
24 - 30 August, 2016
ISBN:
978-619-7105-77-3
ISSN:
2367-5659
Conference:
3rd International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conference on Social Sciences and Arts SGEM 2016, 24 - 30 August, 2016
DOI:
10.5593/SGEMSOCIAL2016/B32/S10.048
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