RURAL KOLYMA OF YAKUTIA: SOCIAL PROCESSES OF XX-TH CENTURY

  • Vinokurova, L.
  • Filippova, V.
  • Sannikova, Y.
  • Grigoriev, S.
Abstract:
This paper carries out an analysis of rural space of life of indigenous population in Kolyma region in 1920-1960's. The authors on the basis of complex research consider social and economic consequences of soviet state policy for rural population of region. On primary sources the specificity of development of the demographic processes is revealed, cultural and geographical characteristics of social transformation in aboriginal communities are discussed. All results are based on field and local archival materials collected by authors in three uluses (districts) of Kolyma region in Yakutia. Official statistical data and regional and local maps were used for comparative historical reconstruction. Our experience of historiography analysis has showed that in the existing scientific literature the rural population – aboriginal ethnic communities and Russian old-timers remain "behind the scenes". Major interest of researchers was focused on the aspects of transport development and mining exploration. According to available data in the late 1920’s the rural population of Kolyma region was 91.5% and the urban population - 8.5%. The rural population was represented by the indigenous peoples of Yakutia - the Evens, Evenki, Yukagirs, Chukchi, Russian old-timers. Traditional economy (nomadic reindeer herding, hunting and fishing, cattle and horses breeding) and all activities of indigenous peoples were due to natural and landscape conditions of Kolyma region. In 1930’s policy of collectivization of the northern economy has been carried out. The GULAG system left undeniable trace in the history of Kolyma region. By increasing the number of "special contingent" on the eve of the Great Patriotic War the share of indigenous people in the national structure decreased by 27.8% and amounted to 55.9% of the total population. In the postwar period the dynamics of the number and ethnic composition of the population was exposed to the processes of labor force migration. Collectivization and two waves of industrialization impacted on resettlement and traditional subsistence of aboriginal communities. Novelty of this multidisciplinary paper lies in the attempt of reconstruction of rural life of Soviet North in regional and local levels using GIS technologies; for the first time the aboriginal issues in context of industrial development of Kolyma region had emphasized.
SGEM Research areas:
Year:
2016
Type of Publication:
In Proceedings
Keywords:
Kolyma; rural population of Yakutia; aboriginals of the North; the traditional economy of the Arctic; ethnic demography; social history; the power and society
Volume:
16
SGEM Book title:
3rd International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conference on Social Sciences and Arts SGEM 2016
Book number:
3.2
SGEM Series:
International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conference on Social Sciences and Arts-SGEM
Pages:
517-522
Publisher address:
51 Al. Malinov blvd, Sofia, 1712, Bulgaria
SGEM supporters:
SWS Scholarly Society; Acad Sci Czech Republ; Latvian Acad Sci; Polish Acad Sci; Russian Acad Sci; Serbian Acad Sci & Arts; Natl Acad Sci Ukraine; Natl Acad Sci Armenia; Sci Council Japan; European Acad Sci, Arts & Letters; Acad Fine Arts Zagreb Croatia; C
Period:
24 - 30 August, 2016
ISBN:
978-619-7105-77-3
ISSN:
2367-5659
Conference:
3rd International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conference on Social Sciences and Arts SGEM 2016, 24 - 30 August, 2016
DOI:
10.5593/SGEMSOCIAL2016/B32/S10.066
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