KAZIMIERZ TWARDOWSKI AS A FEMINIST. THE PRO-WOMEN ATTITUDE AT UNIVERISTY AND ITS CONSEQUENCES
References: International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conference on Social Sciences and Arts SGEM2014, www.sgemsocial.org , SGEM2014 Conference Proceedings, ISBN 978-619-7105-22-3/ ISSN 2367-5659, September 1-9, 2014, Book 1, Vol. 1, 773-778 pp
Kazimierz Twardowski (1866–1938) – a Polish philosopher and psychologist – was a founder of the internationally famous Lviv-Warsaw School. Having studied under the supervision of Franz Brentano, he both improved the level of Lviv University and educated many well known philosophers and psychologists of both sexes at that university. The three main factors of private nature decided on his pro-women attitude; first, his friendships with women in the early age; second, the happy marriage he created with Kazimiera Twardowska; and third, having and bringing up three daughters.
Twardowski believed that women were totally equal to man in all spheres, that their presence at university is something normal and that they should not be treated in a better way. He was famous for being very demanding and there was no exception regarding sex. There is no evidence of using his female coworkers in academia. Twardowski also never pretended to be superior towards women. Moreover, he liked their company, appreciated their work and distinguished them form men by using feminine endings in titles like doktorka, sekretarka etc. (He was immensely impressed by the personality, intelligence and work ethic of Izydora Dąmbska – one of the most distinguished Polish philosophers – who was his student and assistant.)
Among his students and coworkers there was a high percentage of women who later become important figures in Polish intellectual and cultural life. Let us mention: Aniela Szyc (a pedagogue), Izydora Dąmbska (a philosopher), Daniela Gromska (a philosopher and translator), Debora Vogel (a poet), Helena Słoniewska (a psychologist), Maria Kokoszyńska (a logic), Eugenia Ginsberg (a pedagogue), Seweryna Łuszczewska (a logic), Janina Hosiasson-Lindenbaumowa (a logic), Zofia Lissa (a musicologist).
Keywords: misogyny, education, feminism, Lviv-Warsaw School
PAPER DOI: 10.5593/sgemsocial2014/B11/S3.099: KAZIMIERZ TWARDOWSKI AS A FEMINIST. THE PRO-WOMEN ATTITUDE AT UNIVERISTY AND ITS CONSEQUENCES
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