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DOI: 10.5593/sgemsocial2014/B41/S15.130

THE MONASTERY OF SAINT-MARY OF VICTORY: ROMANTICISM BEYOND THE GOTHIC

L. M. L. Serro
Saturday 1 November 2014 by Libadmin2014

References: International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conference on Social Sciences and Arts SGEM2014, www.sgemsocial.org , SGEM2014 Conference Proceedings, ISBN 978-619-7105-30-8/ ISSN 2367-5659, September 1-9, 2014, Book 4, Vol. 1, 1071-1080 pp

ABSTRACT
The Middle-Ages can be considered as the affirmation of Europe as the center of civilization, and the Gothic style as the manifestation of this affirmation.In the European context, Portugal is born with the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula from the Moors, and its recognition as an independent country coincides with the appearance of the Gothic style.The Gothic had two means of assertion in Portugal: The scholarly path, expressed in the foreign influence of the Cistercian Gothic of Alcobaça as well as the flamboyant Gothic of Batalha and the popular path, as an inner influence from the mendicant Gothic.Due to the country’s consolidation of its independence, on the aftermath of the dynastic crisis of 1338-1385, the new king D. João I ordered the edification of the Monastery of Saint-Mary of Victory A Batalha (The Battle). Its construction is a ex-voto to the Virgin Mary for overcoming that crisis, due to the victory in the Battle of Aljubarrota, the major battle in this war.
This monastery has three distinct periods in its existence:1st Period: Construction under the Avis Dynasty, from 1387 to 1515. During this period the following Masters worked in the construction: Master Afonso Domingues: Mendicant construction; Master Huguet: Flamboyant Construction; Master Martim Vasques: Continuation of the construction; Master Fernando Évora: Conventual buildings; and Master Mateus Fernandes: Manueline phase. The rest of the sixteenth century will be dedicated to the continuation of works.2nd Period: From the sixteenth century to the nineteenth century. A period of decadence due to: its isolation, the 1755 earthquake, the fire and the French Revolution.3rd Period: The action of the English and Portuguese nationalisms.The English Nationalism due to: the assignment of the English nationality to Master Huguet; the action of the "Society of Antiquaries"; and the architectural survey of the monastery by James Murphy.The Portuguese Nationalism due to the Romanticism in Portugal and the action of the consort King Fernando of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha-Kohary, which led to the restoration of the monastery in four phases: in 1840 Luís Mouzinho Albuquerque makes the architectural survey; From 1841-1852 Major Joaquim Pallares makes the exterior restoration; From 1852-1884 Architect Lucas Santos Pereira makes the interior restoration, and finally, from 1884-1900 the restoration of the Portal and the arrangement of the Churchyard. war.For all these considerations, by their meaning, and the longevity of their timeliness, the Monastery of Saint-Mary of Victory is the most important monument in Portugal and one of the most iconic buildings of the Southern European Gothic.

Keywords: Monastery, gothic, mendicant, cistercian, romanticism.

PAPER DOI: 10.5593/sgemsocial2014/B41/S15.130: THE MONASTERY OF SAINT-MARY OF VICTORY: ROMANTICISM BEYOND THE GOTHIC

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