LANGUAGE BACKGROUND AND LANGUAGE POLICY IN ARAB COUNTRIES IN THE ERA OF GLOBALIZATION
References: 3rd International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conference on Social Sciences and Arts SGEM 2016, www.sgemsocial.org, SGEM2016 Conference Proceedings, ISBN 978-619-7105-72-8 / ISSN 2367-5659, 24-31 August, 2016, Book 1 Vol. 3, 581-588 pp, DOI: 10.5593/SGEMSOCIAL2016/B13/S03.075
The objects of the study are the linguistic situation in the Arab countries and the language policy of the Arab countries at the modern stage.
The relevance of the study is determined by the complicated situation in the Arab region, in which the language policy is given an important role as a component part of the overall policy framework of a country.
While writing research descriptive and comparative methods, system analysis method were used.
Speaking of the identity it is impossible to ignore the problem of the national language as the main means of communication and the defining component of cultural belonging to an ethnic group, nation, and civilization.
Narrowing the scope of use of languages of international communication and great cultures resulting from the expansion of world languages, especially English raises deep concerns.
Modern Standard Arabic (hereinafter MSA) is a "prophetic" language. As for its speakers it is of a nonconventional character, i.e. they have absolute perception of the sign, which is typical of the religious consciousness. So it has become consecrated and is revered as sacred, having exclusive authority.
Language identification and MSA training in Arab countries are considered among the most important and the most acute social problems. In general, Arab societies perceive westernization and globalization as a manifestation of neo-colonialism, and the degradation of Modern Standard Arabic as a direct threat to Arab national culture, which falls into the subculture.
An integral feature of the language situation in the Arab world today is a turn to foreign languages for the transmission of the latest achievements of science and technology, training, technical and medical majors at universities in foreign languages, especially to English and French.
Therefore, one of the fundamental directions in the activities of the Bureau of Coordination of Arabization (Rabat, Morocco) and the Arabic language academies that exist in all the Arab countries is the creation and unification of specialized terminology for the transmission of science and technology, which would be an alternative to borrowed foreign language terms
The aim of the language policy in the Arab world is to make Arabic literary language as an essential component of the cultural identity of the Arab-Muslim civilization, the primary means of communication with the widest possible range of operation in all areas of communication. Almost insurmountable obstacle to achieving this goal is the objectively existing language situation in the Arab countries that is characterized by the absolute dominance of the spoken language and regional dialects of colloquial-spoken languages (while MSA dominates in writing).
The phenomenon of the "Arab spring" has become a powerful impetus to the awakening of national consciousness, ethnolinguistic classification of development of self-awareness, which resulted in a change in the profile of the language policy of a number of countries in the region.
Keywords: language policy; national identity; Arabization; valuation; codification
PAPER DOI: 10.5593/SGEMSOCIAL2016/B13/S03.075 ; LANGUAGE BACKGROUND AND LANGUAGE POLICY IN ARAB COUNTRIES IN THE ERA OF GLOBALIZATION
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