THE PECULIARITIES OF TECHNOLOGY IN KEEPING THE REINDEERS IN THE MOUNTAINOUS-TAIGA ZONE OF YAKUTIA
The technology of keeping reindeer has its own characteristics that directly affect the productivity of reindeer husbandry. The main condition for further increase in the number of reindeer and increase their productivity is the rational use of pastures, that is, compliance with the correct methods of keeping and grazing reindeer. For the organization of the most complete and correct use of fodder grounds it is necessary knowledge not only of productivity of pastures, but also changes of vegetation under the influence of grazing – pasture digression, and also receptions, peculiarities of technology in keeping the reindeers. Without accounting pasture digression it is impossible to properly normalize the load on pastures and organize their rational use. Improving the technology of deer in the mountain taiga zone of Yakutia allows to minimize the state of pasture digression.
It should be remembered that all measures for the rational use of pastures and their protection should be aimed at maintaining reindeer herding.
One of the ways to improve the technology of reindeer herding is to organize a rational alternation of pastures depending on the time of day and the nature of the weather. Weather reports make it possible to better plan the use of pastures.
Pastures are also suffering from partial use. An important place in the protection of reindeer pastures is the provision of rest lichen pastures, on which the lichen (yagel) under the influence of excessive grazing deer oppressed and begins to die in some places. As far as the rebuild fodder reserves, and improving the condition of pastures "Rested" areas put into operation.
Fallow reindeer, grass wolves led to a reduction in the number of deer in herds for several years. As a result, the routes of the brigades were changed several times due to the need to adjust it depending on the condition and stocks of food and landscape.
Pastures of late autumn, winter and early spring seasons, where the lichen prevails, are especially in need of pasture rotation. You need to remember that moss grows annually, only 3-5 mm. After grazing reindeer lichen is restored usually after three years. Therefore, to prevent deliberately pastures and restore of moss should be deer graze on the same pastures, not annually, and every three years, i.e. to observe a three-year pasture rotation.
At the same time pastures located at the joints of brigade routes were underutilized year after year because of fear of connection of herds. They observed the annual accumulation of rags, old green fodder and the ratio of lichen peat, which due to the deterioration of the hydrothermal regime of soils led to a decrease in the economic reserve of feed.
The rational use of reindeer pastures involves many activities. For example, the herd size should not exceed the norm according to the materials of land management and to meet saveprofile.
Keywords: the peculiarities of technology, to increase, the number of reindeer, the productivity, changes of vegetation, pasture digression, the protection, rational use, lichen pastures, pasture rotation, grazing, land management
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