STRATEGIES FOR INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF RUSSIA’S MODERNIZATION POLICY (1917-1941)
The article is devoted to the analysis of the evolution of Soviet policy on enhancing industrial development in the context of social transformations led by the Communist Party. Authors introduce new periodization of industrial policy, give a brief analysis of its stages. The main goal of the study is to analyze the historical experience of the Soviet state in transformation and adjusting of industrial policy. The study is based modernization theory, as well as on the method of statistical and comparative analysis. The research rests on the analysis of published and archival sources. The authors identify five stages in the Soviet economic policy at the given period. The first stage: (October 1917 - the middle of 1918), the second stage: ( from the middle of 1918 till March 1921 (Civil War); the third stage of the development of economic policy in the military sector - NEP (1921-1928); The fourth stage covers the years of the first two five-year plans of forced industrialization at the USSR (1929-1937); the fifth, final stage covers the pre-war years (1939-1941).
The study characterizes the Bolshevik experiment on building a socialist, command-bureaucratic model of economic management and identifies its main reasons. Authors trace the evolution of the views of the Bolshevik Party on industrial development along the introduction and implementation of the principle of the "socialism in a single country".
Despite the considerable economic success that had been achieved by the USSR, it had been a rather extensive than an intensive development of the military-economic potential. Although significant success in all branches of industry was achieved, USSR was not able to completely overcome organizational and technical consequences of forced industrialization. The experience of the accelerated transformation of industry on the basis of socialist state planning had no analogues in the world. Up to the end of the 1930-s a closed economic system, with a low degree of dependence from the capitalist world was built the USSR. Agencies and socialist enterprises had an opportunity to establish actively horizontal links within this system that enabled them to respond flexibly to changing economic conditions. By the end of the 1930-s, the Communist party elite developed an approach to the military and civilian industry that shaped the postwar period industrial policy. It had predetermined the entire economic policy of the country for many years.
Keywords: October revolution, socialist economy, politics, modernization, social experiment.
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