THE PHISICALIST THEORY OF CONSCIOUSNESS: THE ADVANTAGES OF “NEUROBIOLOGICAL NATURALISM”
The article is devoted to the analysis of arguments in defense of the physicalist theory of consciousness in the version of "biological naturalism", or rather, "neurobiological naturalism". This approach to consciousness implies that consciousness, firstly, is considered as a property of the material system, and, secondly, it is the product of a long biological evolution. The philosophical grounds for this approach are the works of J. Searle, and neurobiological - the works of T.E. Fainberg and J. Mallatt. "Neurobiological naturalism" proceeds from the assumption that consciousness should be sought in a long series of evolutionary changes and it is a set of characteristics of the nervous system, such as the presence of reflexes, the variety of neuron species, their hierarchical organization, the possibility of creating "topographic maps" as a sourse of "mental images", as well as the appearance of affective reactions in response to changes in the external and internal environment. All these features of the nervous system lead to the emergence of sensory consciousness as the basis for the subjective experience of a living being. This theory also provides answers to questions about the interconnection of components in the “brain-consciousness-observer” system, allowing one to hope for a positive solution to the “hard problem” of consciousness.
Keywords: consciousness, "neurobiological naturalism", evolution, qualia, "mental images".
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