THE PROBLEM OF THE RESPONSIBILITY IN THE MODERN THEORY OF MORALITY
The focus of the paper is the nonclassical concepts of responsibility. They lead to the emergence of a specific responsibility ethics in the modern morality theory. There is much evidence that nonclassical concept of responsibility comes across meaningful changes in the understanding of responsibility nature. The changes emerge from the shift of the theoretical and methodological focus to the real-life context, to the reality of the moral life, to actions and responsible choice of the individual, to the rationale of morality through the living individual being of man. There is a growing body of literature showing that choosing one’s own being, a person is responsible not only for himself, but finds his responsible involvement in the Other, in all mankind, in all living things (M.M. Bakhtin, J.-P. Sartre, E. Lévinas, H.Jonas, A.A. Guseinov and others).
There is much evidence that the shift of the responsibility center towards the individual leads to the expansion of the responsibility horizon. The limits of responsibility become mobile. Responsibility turns out to be an important regulator of not only moral relations, but human actions in various socially significant spheres of human activities. For these activities it is of fundamental importance to consider the possible consequences of decisions because the life of many people depends on them. Our major finding is the fact that with a change of the responsibility vector responsibility is increasingly becoming a collective phenomenon.
Keywords: the modern theory of morality; non-classical theory of responsibility; the ethics of responsibility; moral choice; the culture of responsibility
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