INNOVATIVE PRACTICES OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION POLICY IN RUSSIA: CASE OF PERM KRAY
Russia is a country with a high level of international migration. At the same time, the distribution of migrants is uneven; Perm Kray is one of the regions with relatively high level of migration. The population of this region is more than 2, 600 thousand people; Perm Kray is one of the most developed economic regions of Russia. The objectives of the study were to investigate the main problems faced by international migrants and the practice of working with migrants. The main research methods were the focus group with young international migrants and expert interviews. In the city of Perm, five focus groups were conducted with the participation of migrants from Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Azerbaijan in Perm. In addition, expert interviews, interviews with migrants, and analyze of the statistical data were done.
The focus groups with migrants from the CIS countries conducted in the framework of the research showed that the most acute problem for them was the problem of obtaining a certain legal status, which is in many respects connected with the relatively short timeframes for application processes and ineffective work of the migration authorities system. Also, this problem in almost all of the interviewed cases is related to difficulties arising from the inability to obtain registration at the place of residence in Russia. Another major problem of international labor migration in contemporary Russia still continues to be illegal employment. The illegal employment has different forms; usually it means of the employment of foreign citizens without signing a contract, sometime it is the employment without obtaining labour patent. At the same time, the peculiarity of the migration policy of the Perm Kray is the tendency towards organized labor migration, that is, trend to attract migrants to pre-specified jobs.
In conclusion, it can be argued that the most of the problems faced by international migrants in the Perm Kray are typical for international migration in Russia as a whole (the legal status of residence and legalized labor relations). At the same time, in this region there are rather effective practices of working with international migrants. NGOs in alliance with authorities introduce and provide legal medical and social services for migrants and realize the integrative activities. And as a result, the Perm Kray is becoming attractive region for international migrants.
Keywords: international migration, labor migrants, Perm Kray, region, social integration.
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