ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY MATERIALS IN ARCHITECTURE – MODERN TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENT DIRECTIONS
For a long time the interest in environmentally friendly materials in architecture is no longer limited to the use of renewable and natural substances such as wood, stone, straw, or reusable materials, such as metals or glass. Today the so-called naturals and the materials compatible with the idea of sustainability constantly appear on the market in new forms. Increasing awareness of the necessity to limit the building sector’s negative impact on the environment at all possible levels changed the way designers, architects and building engineers perceive the materials. Not only do they determine the characteristics of their products, but also try to define the way building materials should be obtained, produced, and delivered to the construction site, as well as utilized or recycled, and having the least negative impact on the environment . The value of materials that can be reused or recycled is rapidly increasing at the same time, due to numerous EU directives on ecological product design principles and international building certification systems such as LEED, BREAM, and others. The dynamic development of materials engineering offers new, ultra-light, durable, great insulating or energy-generating products, aiming at the development of innovative material solutions that could meet the growing demands of investors. Additionally, the materials are environmentally friendly due to their durability and reduced raw material consumption. At the same time many of these materials solutions are inspired by organic patterns found in nature, though not necessarily made from naturals. The latest advances in environmental and human-friendly materials, potentially useful in architecture, construction and design are becoming increasingly easy to access. Due to interdisciplinary technology transfer and numerous material platforms, being kind of global networks in this area, their consulting centers or exhibitions dedicated to new trends in material design, such as "Noble Naturals" in Shanghai in 2017.
Keywords: architecture, intelligent materials, smart materials.
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