CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN RUSSIA: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS
References: International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conference on Social Sciences and Arts SGEM2014, www.sgemsocial.org , SGEM2014 Conference Proceedings, ISBN 978-619-7105-27-8 / ISSN 2367-5659 , September 1-9, 2014, Book 2, Vol. 3, 99-104 pp
In modern conditions, tourism is a complex sector of the economy, as the production of tourism products affects the economy of various industries. Tourism development causes not only positive effects but also negative ones. Therefore, there is a need to address the problems brought by these effects according to the concept of sustainable tourism. However, in Russia this concept is not currently being realized despite all the officially taken measures, in particular, the fact that the concept of the Russian Federation transition into Sustainable Tourism approved by number 440 Presidential Decree on 1 April 1996.
Taking into consideration the regulations relating to this concept there have appeared three basic approaches in the Russian economy:
Economic approach, based on the theory of aggregate maximum flow;
The social component dedicated to human rights and aimed at preserving stability;
Environmental approach focused on providing sustainable development based on the biological systems’ integrity.
The basic principles of sustainable tourism are:
Ecological correctness of business or eco-efficiency;
The balance of all elements of sustainable tourism as a socio-ecological-economic system;
Equitable access to the resources for different generations.
These principles dictate the need to adopt and implement the following principles in tourism:
Travel and tourism should help people achieve harmony with nature, should contribute to the conservation, protection and restoration of ecosystems;
The application of protectionism policy in selling tourist product should be completely changed;
Protection of the environment should be a major task for sustainable tourism;
Tourism development issues should be resolved together with the concerned citizens (locals).
Having analyzed the sources on this subject, we determined that there exist two concepts to assess the optimal amount of sustainable tourism
Anthropocentric optimum, which applies the rule of providing growth, where the marginal benefits increment from additional physical capital for people equals marginal costs increment;
Biocentric optimum where you must avoid environmental collapse or degradation.
We believe that the optimal amount of tourism development must comply the biocentric optimum.
Having studied the material on this issue, we can conclude that the concept of sustainable tourism should ensure the optimal amount and level of economic activity. Therefore, we suggest the following measures should be developed for the popular tourist destinations:
Coordination of efforts and promoting individuals’ concern;
Development of ways to assess the impact of tourism on the environment;
Developing the rules of tourists’ behavior approved at the regional authorities level.
Keywords: tourism, sustainable, eco-efficiency, biocentric optimum
PAPER DOI: 10.5593/sgemsocial2014/B23/S7.012: CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN RUSSIA: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS
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