THE INFLUENCE OF THE FLORENTINE RENESSANCE ON THE ARCHITECTURE OF POLAND IN THE SPHERE OF IDEAS, FORMS AND DETAILS
The article draws attention to the social transformation in the fourteenth century and the beginning of the fifteenth century in Florence. During this time, the position of the guild gradually decreased, and the wealth and importance of patricians grew. The increase in the financial capacity of the townspeople has contributed to the rise of their ambitions. Some of them were aspiring to the role of aristocracy. The only barrier was their origin. Cosimo de ’Medici called ‘the Elder’ was a merchant, banker and humanist. He exerted a special influence on the development of architecture as a field contributing to the growth of one’s social position. He built his position in Florence through social, charitable and foundational activity. The famous patron of the arts was his grandson, Lorenzo de Medici. Neoplatonic ideas, promoted by the representatives of the Florence Academy, as well as the development of the theory of architecture and art significantly changed the status of artists in the society.
It was taken into consideration how the changes initiated in Florence influenced the development of art and architecture in Italy and throughout Europe. The strong royal power was characteristic of France, Spain, England and Poland. Kings in those countries were the main investors, and often also experts and patrons of art. An important factor was the personality of the ruler, his education, priorities, artistic taste and financial possibilities.
The article emphasizes the contribution of the rulers to the development of the Polish Renaissance. Attention was also paid to the artists educated in Florence and employed in Poland. King Sigismund I personally initiated the Renaissance period in Poland. Examples of his projects included the reconstruction of the Wawel Castle and the construction of the Sigismund Chapel. Gifted Italian artists like Francesco Fiorentino from Florence and Bartolomeo Berrecci from Pontassieve worked on the construction and decorations. Berrecci learned sculpture and architecture in Florence as a pupil of Andrea Ferrucci and probably Andrea Sansovino. Sansovino significantly influenced the Renaissance sculpture in Poland.
While following his father footsteps, King Sigismund August was one of the most educated and active patrons of architecture. Representatives of the magnates and the nobles were building facilities based on those developed by the king, frequently using the same architects and sculptors. This article summarizes the impact of the Florentine Renaissance on the Renaissance in Poland in the sphere of ideas, forms and details.
Keywords: Florence Renaissance, Polish Renaissance, patronage, inspirations
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